This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Early Universe was packed with mini black holes Explore further Citation: Cosmic entropy could be 100 times greater than previously thought (2009, October 6) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-10-cosmic-entropy-greater-previously-thought.html (PhysOrg.com) — A new analysis of supermassive black holes has discovered the entropy of the universe is much greater than previously thought, which means it may also be very slightly closer to ultimate heat death. The study, analyzing measurements of the supermassive black hole mass function, was carried out by two Australian cosmologists: Chas A. Egan from the Australian National University in Canberra, and Charles H. Lineweaver from the University of NSW in Sydney. Their results indicated the entropy at the current cosmic event horizon is much greater than the entropy of the interior of the universe, and the total cosmic entropy is about 100 times greater than previous calculations.Entropy increases as the number of ways the system can be arranged microscopically without changing the external appearance increases. Egan used the example of hot water being poured into a cold bath. Before the hot and cold water meet they are separate and orderly and the system has low entropy. When the hot and cold water are well mixed, the entropy is high and no heat flow between the two is possible.Egan and Lineweaver found the collective entropy of the supermassive black holes was around 100 times higher than expected. Since these black holes contribute more to the entropy in the universe than anything else, the results imply that the entire cosmic entropy is also a 100 times greater than earlier estimates.Previous calculations of the cosmic entropy assumed the presence of a 10 million solar-mass black hole at the center of each galaxy, and the entropy was calculated using an estimated average mass. Egan and Lineweaver had access to more recent data that gave them the range of supermassive black hole masses rather than an average. Egan said the study revealed a smaller number of larger supermassive black holes contribute much more to the entropy than previously believed.The universe has much lower entropy than is theoretically possible, and this is still true, even with the new calculations. This is just as well because the entropy of the universe must be below the maximum theoretical value or life and other complex phenomena will cease to exist. As the entropy gradually increases it will eventually approach the theoretical maximum, a state many physicists have called the heat death of the universe. The new calculation takes the universe a little closer, but it is still only a billionth of a billionth of the maximum.Not every scientist agrees that the higher entropy takes the universe closer to heat death. Ned Wright of the University of California in Los Angeles, for example, suggests the entropy is locked inside the supermassive black holes, and so the rest of the universe has lower entropy and is therefore further away from heat death.More information: The paper was published online at arXiv.org.via Sciencenews.org© 2009 PhysOrg.com
Archives: August 2019
(PhysOrg.com) — Uh oh. Boston Dynamics, makers of the BigDog robot that can haul stuff around for the military has released a video of PETMAN, a human version that looks like a combination of the Terminator and a Cylon from Battlestar Galactica. Maybe even scarier is the fact that it walks like John Wayne; just enough attitude to let you know he’s not someone to be messed with. © 2011 PhysOrg.com PETMAN is just under six feet tall, and weighs close to 180 pounds, which is what you get if you average the height and weight of the average human American soldier. He’s also tethered, which softens the fear factor a bit, but not really all that much when it is recalled that BigDog was tethered when first seen on video too.Boston Dynamics was founded by some really smart people from MIT, and it’s funding for most of its projects such as this one ($26.3 million) come from the U.S. Defense Department, e.g. DARPA. And while the DoD maintains that it’s reason for paying for the creation of PETMAN is to test uniforms, it’s hardly likely that it’s interest will remain there indefinitely as it’s hard to ignore the emotional reaction that most people experience upon viewing the video. Seeing it in person, weaponized, on the battlefield, likely would inspire a new level of terror in enemy combatants and could conceivably lead to changes in the ways unconventional wars are fought. Just as is happening already with drones. PETMAN robot to closely simulate soldiers (w/ Video)
© 2013 Phys.org Citation: Nanoscale MRI being developed (2013, February 1) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-02-nanoscale-mri.html ‘Critical baby step’ taken for spying life on a molecular scale Explore further
Coating noble metal nanoparticles with silica © 2015 Phys.org This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. More information: Mechanochemical Activation and Patterning of an Adhesive Surface toward Nanoparticle Deposition, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2015, 137 (5), pp 1726–1729. DOI: 10.1021/ja507983xAbstractMechanical pulling of adhesive tape creates radicals on the tape’s surface. These radicals are capable of reducing metal salts to the corresponding metal nanoparticles. In this way, the mechanically activated tape can be decorated with various types of nanoparticles, including Au, Ag, Pd, or Cu. While retaining their mechanical properties and remaining “sticky,” the tapes can exhibit new properties derived from the presence of metal nanoparticles (e.g., bacteriostaticity, increased electrical conductivity). They can also be patterned with nanoparticles only at selective locations of mechanical activation. Journal information: Journal of the American Chemical Society Adding metal nanoparticles to a surface offers a way to confer properties onto it that would not be present otherwise—allowing rubbers to conduct electricity, for example. But, getting metal nanoparticles to adhere to desired products oftentimes involves a lot of time, effort or money (not to mention hazardous waste byproducts) which can detract from its usefulness. In this new effort, the researchers found that common, inexpensive sticky tape provides an opportunity for adding nanoparticles to a surface in a simple, clean way.The researchers note that unspooling sticky tape from its roll causes bonds within the tape polymer to break which results in radicals forming on its surface—radicals that are attracted to metal nanoparticles. That meant, all they had to do was create a liquid solution with nanoparticles in it, drop a length of sticky tape into it and let it soak for awhile. The nanoparticles bonded with the radicals causing them to adhere, forming a layer on the tape material made of the nanoparticles, and that imbued the sticky tape with the attractive properties of the metal nanoparticles.Using this method, the team created sticky tape strips with gold nanoparticles to increase electrical conductivity, copper to allow it to be used as a fungicide and silver to allow for use as an antibiotic. They noted that their process did not cause a reduction in stickiness, which meant the tape could still be applied to another surface, adding to its desirable attributes. Also they noted that the technique could be adapted to tapes not on a roll by using physical pressure to release the radicals. As one example, they placed a length of sticky tape into a bath of silver nitrate for a few hours—it turned yellow-orange, indicating that the silver in the bath had indeed formed a layer on the tape. (Phys.org)—A combined team of researchers from Northwestern University in the U.S. and Bilkent University in Turkey has found that ordinary Scotch tape can be used to create a metal nanoparticle surface. In their paper published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society, the team describes how they used ordinary sticky tape to create the surfaces and why it worked so well. Citation: Researchers find easy way to deposit metal nanoparticles on a surface using tape (2015, February 13) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-02-easy-deposit-metal-nanoparticles-surface.html Explore further
The Mahavidyalya Natya Samaroh proved to be a unique platform for students to display their multifarious talents. Some widely popular and renowned plays mixed with some new ideas, ‘nukkad nataks’ and some boisterous performances were performed at the festival. A popular comic satire on the desire of a middle class man to break into the society of the elite, Kauva Chala Hans Ki Chaal, opened the third day of the Mahavidyalya Natya Samaroh.The play presented by students of the ARSD College of Delhi University under the direction of Sunil Kumar generated appreciation and some gags and was followed by Batch 2002, a play enancted by students of Hindu college under the direction of Vedi Sinha and Himanshu Tiwari. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Besides the two plays, the day’s line of events also comprised of two fabulously presented street plays by students of Hansraj College, Delhi College of Arts & Commerce.The four day theatre extravaganza is a festival of selected plays from Delhi University in which eight plays and eight nukkad nataks or ‘street plays’ are being at the Sri Ram Centre Auditorium, Mandi House. The plays have been selected from a large bunch of presentations from Delhi University and represent some of the finest upcoming talents of the city. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with Netflix‘It is a wonderful exercise to bring student artists to a prestigious platform. This not only gives them the right exposure but also encourages them to follow their talents. When we talk about promoting theater and its artists, it is very important to start promoting fresh talent in schools and colleges. The festival of students is part of our endeavor to promote the art of theater among students,’ says JP Singh, assistant secretary (Drama), Sahitya Kala Parishad. Aisa Kahte Hain, a light hearted comedy written by playwright Manav Kaul, comprising an ensemble of sundry characters will be adapted for stage by students of SGGS College of Commerce on the last day.Besides, naukkad nataks were also presented by students of Kamla Nehru College and Deen Dayal Upadhyay College.Internationally acclaimed play Can’t Pay? Won’t Pay! a satire about capitalism and the backlash it precipitates, was also presented as an ‘invitee’ by students of Khalsa College. Written by Dario Fo, the play has been popular worldwide and was enacted on the last day of the festival.
India Habitat Centre throws open its doors to cinema lovers of Delhi with its annual Habitat Film Festival starting from May 8 -17. Celebrating its 10th year, the festival this year has an increased number of screenings and a retrospective and an interaction with the unparalleled master of his craft – Kamal Haasan.The film festival showcases the best of Pan-Indian Cinema from the past year. This year it will screen 48 films in 13 languages. Fresh and innovative storylines, stunning cinematography, veteran actors and directors, rising stars and award winning performances of 2014-2015 are all an integral part of the festival apart from 19 National Award Winning Films. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The festival opens on May 8 with Shonali Bose’s highly acclaimed Margarita With A Straw and Teen Kahon (Bengali) directed by Bauddhayan Mukherji. Kamal Hasaan retrospective will be screened on May 9 with an interaction with the star followed by a screening of Vishwaroopam (Hindi). Over the next 10 days, Habitat Film Festival will see the screening of several outstanding films including Marana Dandane (Kannada), Bey Yaar (Gujarati), Lajwanti and Gour Hari Dastaan (Hindi), Kuttaram Kadhithal (Tamil), Labour of Love and Chatushkone (Bengali), Quolf (Kashmiri), Shukha Asuchi (Oriya), Piku (Hindi), Elizabeth Ekadasi and Ek Hazarachi Note (Marathi), Ottal (Malayalam), Qissa, Punjab 1984 and Chaar Sahibzaade (Punjabi), Pallefam (Manipuri), Borhxaranya (Assamese) among a host of other wonderful films from various regions and languages. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixKamal Haasan’s retrospective showcase his amazing multifaceted talent with Vishwaroopam, Ek Duje Ke Liye, Sadma, Chachi 420 and Saagar, Hey Ram (Hindi) and Virumandi, Nagayan and Guna (Tamil). The Habitat Film Festival provides audiences the unique opportunity to not just watch otherwise inaccessible films but also an interaction with directors in a post film Question and Answer session. This year, some of the actors/directors scheduled to attend are Kalki Koechlin, Shoojit Sircar, Ananth Mahadevan, Pushpendra Singh, Bauddhayan Mukherji, Abhishek Jain, Sohini Dasgupta, Atanu Ghosh, Hiren Bhora, Sajin Baabu and more. Vidyun Singh, Programmes Director, India Habitat Centre said “In the 10 years since we began the Habitat Film Festival to provide a dedicated platform to showcase the Best of Pan Indian cinema, Indian cinema has gone places! A brave new breed of directors, skilled professionals, producers and storylines have ensured an increasing and respected space in the International Cinema space.”Apart from film screenings, there will be several other activities like Rhythm, Raga And Melody—an exhibition throughout the festival., at the Convention Centre Foyer in collaboration with the National Film Archive of India, Pune.
Kolkata: The West Bengal Forest Development Corporation (WBFDC) will be running a resort that the North Bengal Development Department is developing at Lataguri.It may be mentioned that the Mamata Banerjee government has stressed on the development of infrastructure to give a boost to the tourism sector. Several initiatives were taken up in the past seven years, resulting in huge growth and inflow of tourists in Bengal. Besides improving the infrastructure for better connectivity and beautification of tourist spots, the state government has also taken up initiatives to set up sufficient accommodation facilities at different places. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeIn the past seven years, North Bengal had come up as a place of major tourist attraction and it even resulted in the increase of the passenger load at Bagdogra Airport as well. Now with the increase in the inflow of tourists, the state government has felt the need of increasing accommodation facilities as well. Hence, the move to develop a resort has been taken up by the North Bengal Development department. The construction of the resort has started and it would take a few more months to complete the work. Completion of the project will ensure more accommodation facilities at Lataguri where the number of tourists is increasing every year, said an official of the Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedcorporation. Udayan Guha, Chairman of the corporation, said: “North Bengal Development department is developing the infrastructure of the resort that is coming up at Lataguri. The work has already started. As per the discussion, the resort will be handed over to the corporation to run after the construction is complete.” The step has been taken up as the department didn’t have the necessary expertise and infrastructure to run a resort. But the corporation is successful as it has been running resorts at many places, including both North and South Bengal. It may be mentioned that recently one of the resorts of the corporation was opened at Tajpur. The corporation has ensured that one can do online booking of rooms at the resorts. One needs to log in to the website of the corporation for online booking and the booking of the upcoming resort at Lataguri will also be available through the website of the corporation. Information about the resort will be available on the website. The corporation has also introduced restaurant facilities at many of its resorts.
Kolkata: A police Sub-Inspector was heckled by some truck drivers in Dum Dum while he was prosecuting them for parking their vehicles at a ‘No Parking Zone’ onTuesday afternoon. Later, two persons were arrested on charges for allegedly manhandling a police personnel and obstructing a public servant from discharging his duty. According to the sources, since past several months, the Airport-Nagerbazar Traffic Guard was receiving complaints of no parking space violation along Jessore Road between ordinance factory and Dum Dum Central Jail. On Tuesday, Debasish Kumar, Officer-in-Charge (OC), traffic, Airport Nagerbazar Traffic Guard of Barrackpore Police, went to the area and started prosecuting the vehicles parked on the no parking zone. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeAfter prosecuting several vehicles, he reached in front of a private English medium school and found several Heavy Goods vehicle (HGV) and Light Goods vehicle (LGV) were parked there. He asked to provide vehicle documents with the intention to prosecute them. One of the HGV drivers failed to produce valid documents to him and as a measure the police personnel tried to tow the HGV away from there to detain it. As soon as a towing van reached the area near school, drivers got agitated. When the towing van was about to tow the HGV, a few drivers manhandled Kumar and tried to snatch his Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedmobile phone. Other police personnel present there intervened and called Dum Dum police station for back up. Within minutes, drivers put up a road block on Jessore Road. Soon, police personnel from Dum Dum police station reached the spot and forced the truck drivers to withdraw the road block. Later, Kumar submitted a written complaint against the drivers and two of them were arrested. The raid will continue till the malpractice ends. Again on Wednesday, police action will be carried on to prosecute the offenders. If necessary vehicles may be towed away.